2012 Global Report
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
Xavier, Kelley, et al.
First published March 2013
Throughout the world, shifts in population demographics, technological change, fluctuating economies and other dynamic forces have transformed societies as never before, bringing new challenges and opportunities to the forefront. Among the responses to these shifting forces is an increased emphasis on entrepreneurship by governments, organizations and the public. While entrepreneurship may not be a panacea, it can surely be part of the solution. Yet, growth for growth’s sake alone is not enough. Economic growth through entrepreneurship needs to address issues of inclusiveness and ensure these efforts advance societal well-being.
The GEM study is uniquely positioned to advance understanding about entrepreneurship and facilitate decisions and initiatives that promote these endeavours. Each year, GEM provides a broad array of data on societal attitudes, participation levels of individuals at different stages of the entrepreneurship process and the characteristics of entrepreneurs and their businesses. This information can enable comparisons within and across individual economies, geographic regions, and economic development levels.
With ambitious objectives, GEM aims to facilitate understanding about the influence of entrepreneurship on economic growth, and to assist in the identification of factors that encourage and/or hinder this activity. GEM provides data for researchers, knowledge on global entrepreneurship for educators and practitioners, and information to guide policy makers in formulating effective and targeted policies and programs to stimulate and support the efforts of entrepreneurs.
In the late spring and early summer of 2012, more than 198,000 adults in 69 economies took part in the GEM survey. With the largest sample to date, this group of economies represented an estimated 74% of the world’s population and 87% of the world’s GDP. GEM research teams in each economy administered this annual survey to at least 2,000 adults. They also polled selected national experts about the conditions influencing the nature and level of entrepreneurship in their economies. This report reveals results on GEM’s annual measures and provides insights on immigrant entrepreneurship: a special topic focus in 2012.